BMC Cancer 15 (1): 68 (2015-02-18)

Berenstein R.; Blau O.; Nogai A.; Waechter M.; Slonova E.; Schmidt-Hieber M.; Kunitz A.; Pezzutto A.; Doerken B.; Blau I.W.

Multiple myeloma cells alter the senescence phenotype of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells under participation of the DLK1-DIO3 genomic region

Background: Alterations and senescence in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells of multiple myeloma patients (MM-BMMSCs) have become an important research focus. However the role of senescence in the pathophysiology of MM is not clear. Methods: Correlation between senescence, cell cycle and microRNA expression of MM-BMMSCs (n = 89) was analyzed. Gene expression analysis, copy number analysis and methylation specific PCR were performed by Real-Time PCR. Furthermore, cyclin E1, cyclin D1, p16 and p21 genes were analyzed at the protein level using ELISA. Cell cycle and senescence were analyzed by FACS. MiRNA transfection was performed with miR-485-5p inhibitor and mimic followed by downstream analysis of senescence and cell cycle characteristics of MM-BMMSCs. Results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test depending on the experimental set up. Results: MM-BMMSCs displayed increased senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity (SA-betaGalA), cell cycle arrest in S phase and overexpression of microRNAs. The overexpressed microRNAs miR-485-5p and miR-519d are located on DLK1-DIO3 and C19MC, respectively. Analyses revealed copy number accumulation and hypomethylation of both clusters. KMS12-PE myeloma cells decreased SA-betaGalA and influenced cell cycle characteristics of MM-BMMSCs. MiR-485-5p was significantly decreased in co-cultured MM-BMMSCs in connection with an increased methylation of DLK1-DIO3. Modification of miR-485-5p levels using microRNA mimic or inhibitor altered senescence and cell cycle characteristics of MM-BMMSCs. Conculusions: Here, we show for the first time that MM-BMMSCs have aberrant methylation and copy number of the DLK1-DIO3 and C19MC genomic region. Furthermore, this is the first study pointing that multiple myeloma cells in vitro reduce both the senescence phenotype of MM-BMMSCs and the expression of miR-223 and miR-485-5p. Thus, it is questionable whether senescence of MM-BMMSCs plays a pathological role in active multiple myeloma or is more important when cell interaction with myeloma cells is inhibited. Furthermore, we found that MiR-485-5p, which is located on the DLK1-DIO3 cluster, seems to participate in the regulation of senescence status and cell cycle characteristics of MM-BMMSCs. Thus, further exploration of the microRNAs of DLK1-DIO3 could provide further insights into the origin of the senescence state and its reversal in MM-BMMSCs.

Keywords: Multiple Myeloma, Bone Marrow Stromal Cells, Senescence, Cell Cycle, DLK1-DIO3, miR-485-5p

Type: Article

PubMed: 25886144
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