Association and linkage of allelic variants of the dopamine transporter gene in ADHD


  • S. Friedel
  • K. Saar
  • S. Sauer
  • A. Dempfle
  • S. Walitza
  • T. Renner
  • M. Romanos
  • C. Freitag
  • C. Seitz
  • H. Palmason
  • A. Scherag
  • C. Windemuth-Kieselbach
  • B.G. Schimmelmann
  • C. Wewetzer
  • J. Meyer
  • A. Warnke
  • K.P. Lesch
  • R. Reinhardt
  • B. Herpertz-Dahlmann
  • M. Linder
  • A. Hinney
  • H. Remschmidt
  • H. Schaefer
  • K. Konrad
  • N. Huebner
  • J. Hebebrand


  • Molecular Psychiatry


  • Mol Psychiatr 12 (10): 923-933


  • Previously, we had reported a genome-wide scan for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 102 families with affected sibs of German ancestry; the highest multipoint LOD score of 4.75 was obtained on chromosome 5p13 (parametric HLOD analysis under a dominant model) near the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). We genotyped 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this candidate gene and its 5' region in 329 families (including the 102 initial families) with 523 affected offspring. We found that (1) SNP rs463379 was significantly associated with ADHD upon correction for multiple testing (P=0.0046); (2) the global P-value for association of haplotypes was significant for block two upon correction for all (n=3) tested blocks (P=0.0048); (3) within block two we detected a nominal P=0.000034 for one specific marker combination. This CGC haplotype showed relative risks of 1.95 and 2.43 for heterozygous and homozygous carriers, respectively; and (4) finally, our linkage data and the genotype-IBD sharing test (GIST) suggest that genetic variation at the DAT1 locus explains our linkage peak and that rs463379 (P<0.05) is the only SNP of the above haplotype that contributed to the linkage signal. In sum, we have accumulated evidence that genetic variation at the DAT1 locus underlies our ADHD linkage peak on chromosome 5; additionally solid association for a single SNP and a haplotype were shown. Future studies are required to assess if variation at this locus also explains other positive linkage results obtained for chromosome 5p.