Functional imaging using fluorine ((19)F) MR methods: basic concepts


  • S. Waiczies
  • C. Prinz
  • L. Starke
  • J.M. Millward
  • P.R. Delgado
  • J. Rosenberg
  • M. Nazaré
  • H. Waiczies
  • A. Pohlmann
  • T. Niendorf


  • Methods in Molecular Biology


  • Methods Mol Biol 2216: 279-299


  • Kidney-associated pathologies would greatly benefit from noninvasive and robust methods that can objectively quantify changes in renal function. In the past years there has been a growing incentive to develop new applications for fluorine ((19)F) MRI in biomedical research to study functional changes during disease states. (19)F MRI represents an instrumental tool for the quantification of exogenous (19)F substances in vivo. One of the major benefits of (19)F MRI is that fluorine in its organic form is absent in eukaryotic cells. Therefore, the introduction of exogenous (19)F signals in vivo will yield background-free images, thus providing highly selective detection with absolute specificity in vivo. Here we introduce the concept of (19)F MRI, describe existing challenges, especially those pertaining to signal sensitivity, and give an overview of preclinical applications to illustrate the utility and applicability of this technique for measuring renal function in animal models. This chapter is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This introduction chapter is complemented by two separate chapters describing the experimental procedure and data analysis.