Genetic influences on the pharmacokinetics of orally and intravenously administered digoxin as exhibited by monozygotic twins


  • A.L. Birkenfeld
  • J. Jordan
  • U. Hofmann
  • A. Busjahn
  • G. Franke
  • N. Krueger
  • S. Igel
  • T. Muerdter
  • S. Drescher
  • S. Shi
  • S. Engeli
  • M. Schwab
  • M. Eichelbaum
  • F.C. Luft
  • M.F. Fromm


  • Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics


  • Clin Pharmacol Ther 86 (6): 605-608


  • The expression and function of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein are highly variable. Environmental and genetic factors contribute to this variation. We studied the disposition of digoxin, a frequently used probe drug for P-glycoprotein function in humans, in monozygotic (MZ) twins and found that digoxin pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration are highly correlated within MZ twins, supporting the hypothesis of a robust contribution from genetic variance. Our study suggests that studies involving twins could be more widely applied to elucidate pharmacogenetics.