High fidelity 3D magnetic stray field mapping of smartphones to address safety considerations with active implantable electronic medical devices


  • N. Saha
  • J.M. Millward
  • C.J.J. Herrmann
  • F. Rahimi
  • H. Han
  • P. Lacour
  • F. Blaschke
  • T. Niendorf


  • Sensors


  • Sensors 23 (3): 1209


  • Case reports indicate that magnets in smartphones could be a source of electromagnetic interference (EMI) for active implantable medical devices (AIMD), which could lead to device malfunction, compromising patient safety. Recognizing this challenge, we implemented a high-fidelity 3D magnetic field mapping (spatial resolution 1 mm) setup using a three-axis Hall probe and teslameter, controlled by a robot (COSI Measure). With this setup, we examined the stray magnetic field of an iPhone 13 Pro, iPhone 12, and MagSafe charger to identify sources of magnetic fields for the accurate risk assessment of potential interferences with AIMDs. Our measurements revealed that the stray fields of the annular array of magnets, the wide-angle camera, and the speaker of the smartphones exceeded the 1 mT limit defined by ISO 14117:2019. Our data-driven safety recommendation is that an iPhone 13 Pro should be kept at least 25 mm away from an AIMD to protect it from unwanted EMI interactions. Our study addresses safety concerns due to potential device–device interactions between smartphones and AIMDs and will help to define data-driven safety guidelines. We encourage vendors of electronic consumer products (ECP) to provide information on the magnetic fields of their products and advocate for the inclusion of smartphones in the risk assessment of EMI with AIMDs.