Multiple sclerosis and circadian rhythms: Can diet act as a treatment?


  • O. Pivovarova-Ramich
  • H.G. Zimmermann
  • F. Paul


  • Acta Physiologica


  • Acta Physiol 237 (4): e13939


  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with increasing incidence and prevalence. MS is associated with inflammatory and metabolic disturbances that, as preliminary human and animal data suggest, might be mediated by disruption of circadian rhythmicity. Nutrition habits can influence the risk for MS, and dietary interventions may be effective in modulating MS disease course. Chronotherapeutic approaches such as time-restricted eating (TRE) may benefit people with MS by stabilizing the circadian clock and restoring immunological and metabolic rhythms, thus potentially counteracting disease progression. This review provides a summary of selected studies on dietary intervention in MS, circadian rhythms, and their disruption in MS, including clock gene variations, circadian hormones, and retino-hypothalamic tract changes. Furthermore, we present studies that reported diurnal variations in MS, which might result from circadian disruption. And lastly, we suggest how chrononutritive approaches like TRE might counteract MS disease activity.