Phase II trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of orally applied niclosamide in patients with metachronous or sychronous metastases of a colorectal cancer progressing after therapy: the NIKOLO trial


  • S. Burock
  • S. Daum
  • U. Keilholz
  • K. Neumann
  • W. Walther
  • U. Stein


  • BMC Cancer


  • BMC Cancer 18 (1): 297


  • BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of all cancer deaths in Europe and the Western world with a lifetime risk of approximately 5%. Despite several improvements in the treatment of patients with unresectable CRC prognosis is poor and there is the need of developing new treatment strategies for patients with metastatic chemorefractory disease. The S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4) predicts metastasis formation and reduced CRC patient survival. S100A4 was previously identified as transcriptional target of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anti-helminthic drug niclosamide is known to intervene in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway signaling, leading to reduced expression of S100A4 linked to restricted in vivo metastasis formation. Thus, we aim at translation of our findings on restricting S100A4-driven metastasis into clinical practice for treating metastasized CRC patients progressing after standard therapy. METHODS/DESIGN: NIKOLO is a phase II, single center, one-arm open-label clinical trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of niclosamide tablets in patients with metastasized CRC progressing under standard therapy. Eligible patients will receive 2 g of orally applied niclosamide once a day and will continue with the treatment once daily till disease progression or toxicity. Toxicities will be graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE) v4.03. The primary objective of this trial is to assess the progression free survival after 4 months, secondary objectives are overall survival, time to progression, disease control rate (remission + partial remission + stable disease), and safety. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis will be conducted to evaluate niclosamide plasma concentration. DISCUSSION: This study is expected to provide evidence of the feasibility, toxicity and efficacy of niclosamide in the treatment of patients with metastasized CRC and could help to establish a new treatment option. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered with (NCT02519582) and the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT 2014-005151-20).