Reduced systolic function and not genetic variants determine outcome in pediatric and adult left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy


  • A. Schultze-Berndt
  • J. Kühnisch
  • C. Herbst
  • F. Seidel
  • N. Al-Wakeel-Marquard
  • J. Dartsch
  • S. Theisen
  • W. Knirsch
  • R. Jenni
  • M. Greutmann
  • E. Oechslin
  • F. Berger
  • S. Klaassen


  • Frontiers in Pediatrics


  • Front Pediatr 9: 722926


  • BACKGROUND: Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC CMP) is a genetic cardiomyopathy. Genotype-phenotype correlation and clinical outcome of genetic variants in pediatric and adult LVNC CMP patients are still unclear. METHODS: The retrospective multicenter study was conducted in unrelated index patients with LVNC CMP, diagnosed between the years 1987 and 2017, and all available family members. All index patients underwent next-generation sequencing for genetic variants in 174 target genes using the Illumina TruSight Cardio Sequencing Panel. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) included mechanical circulatory support, heart transplantation, survivor of cardiac death, and/or all-cause death as combined endpoint. RESULTS: Study population included 149 LVNC CMP patients with a median age of 27.8 (9.2–44.8) years at diagnosis; 58% of them were symptomatic, 18% suffered from non-sustained and sustained arrhythmias, and 17% had an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implanted. 55/137 patients (40%) were ≤ 18 years at diagnosis. A total of 134 variants were identified in 87/113 (77%) index patients. 93 variants were classified as variant of unknown significance (VUS), 24 as likely pathogenic and 15 as pathogenic. The genetic yield of (likely) pathogenic variants was 35/113 (31%) index patients. Variants occurred most frequently in MYH7 (n=19), TTN (n = 10) and MYBPC3 (n = 8). Altogether, sarcomere gene variants constituted 42.5% (n = 57) of all variants. The presence or absence of (likely) pathogenic variants or variants in specific genes did not allow risk stratification for MACE. Reduced left ventricular (LV) systolic function and increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) were risk factors for event-free survival in the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Through multivariate analysis we identified reduced LV systolic function as the main risk factor for MACE. Patients with reduced LV systolic function were at a 4.6-fold higher risk for MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants did not predict the risk of developing a MACE, neither in the pediatric nor in the adult cohort. Multivariate analysis emphasized reduced LV systolic function as the main independent factor that is elevating the risk for MACE. Genetic screening is useful for cascade screening to identify family members at risk for developing LVNC CMP.