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Response to anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

Authors

  • J. Zaleska
  • P. Kwasnik
  • M. Paziewska
  • Jo. Purkot
  • A. Szabelak
  • M. Jurek
  • N. Masny
  • I. Dziatkiewicz
  • B. Pronobis-Szczylik
  • A. Piebiak
  • A. Szymczyk
  • K. Jarosz-Chudzik
  • L. Bolkun
  • K. Kozlowska
  • J. Piszcz
  • E. Subocz
  • J. Halka
  • M. Bator
  • E. Kalicinska
  • T. Wrobel
  • L. Usnarska-Zubkiewicz
  • J. Rybka
  • I. Deren-Wagemann
  • M. Szyca-Smieszniak
  • J. Dybko
  • I. Hus
  • B. Pula
  • E. Cichocka
  • M. Rymko
  • D. Zdunczyk
  • M. Ziarkiewicz
  • G.W. Basak
  • L. Bullinger
  • K. Giannopoulos

Journal

  • International Journal of Cancer

Citation

  • Int J Cancer 15 (4): 705-712

Abstract

  • Multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients have increased morbidity and mortality rates of COVID-19 due to immunosuppression associated with the disease and ongoing therapy. The same immune impairment accompanying CLL and MM also affects suboptimal vaccine response. The study assessed the effectiveness of the humoral and T cell-mediated immunity following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (using either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) in short-term (2-5 weeks after 2(nd) dose) and long-term follow-up (12 weeks after vaccination). Between March and August 2021, blood samples were obtained from 62 CLL and 60 MM patients from eight different hematology departments in Poland. Total anti-RBD antibodies were detected in 37% MM patients before vaccination, increased to 91% and 94% in short- and long-term follow-up, respectively. In CLL, serological responses were detectable in 21% of patients before vaccination and increased to 45% in the short-term and 71% in long-term observation. We detected a tendency to higher frequencies of specific CD8+ T cells against SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination compared to samples before vaccination in MM patients and no changes in frequencies of specific T cells in CLL patients. This study provides novel insights into mRNA vaccination efficacy in immunocompromised MM and CLL patients, and our findings highlight that specific CD8+ T cells against SARS-CoV-2 might be induced by vaccination but do not correlate positively with serological responses.


DOI

doi:10.1002/ijc.34209