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Signaling by the Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 protein induces potent cytotoxic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses

Authors

  • I.K. Choi
  • Z. Wang
  • Q. Ke
  • M. Hong
  • Y. Qian
  • X. Zhao
  • Y. Liu
  • H.J. Kim
  • J. Ritz
  • H. Cantor
  • K. Rajewsky
  • K.W. Wucherpfennig
  • B. Zhang

Journal

  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Citation

  • Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115 (4): E686-E695

Abstract

  • The B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), pandemic in humans, is rapidly controlled on initial infection by T cell surveillance; thereafter, the virus establishes a lifelong latent infection in the host. If surveillance fails, fatal lymphoproliferation and lymphomagenesis ensue. The initial T cell response consists of predominantly CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells and a smaller expansion of CD4(+) cells. A major approach to treating EBV-associated lymphomas is adoptive transfer of autologous or allogeneic T cells that are stimulated/expanded on EBV-transformed B cells. Strikingly, the clinical response correlates with the frequency of CD4 cells in the infused T cells. Although in vitro studies suggested that EBV-specific CD4 cells develop cytotoxicity, they have not been comprehensively characterized and the molecular mechanism underlying their formation remains unknown. Our recent work, using a transgenic approach in mice, has revealed a central role for the EBV signaling molecule LMP1 in immune surveillance and transformation of EBV-infected B cells. The mouse model offers a unique tool for uncovering basic features of EBV immunity. Here, we show that LMP1 expression in B cells induces potent cytotoxic CD4 and CD8 T cell responses, by enhancing antigen presentation and costimulation by CD70, OX40 ligand, and 4-1BB ligand. Our data further suggest that cytotoxic CD4 cells hold superior therapeutic value for LMP1 (EBV)-driven lymphomas. These findings provide insights into EBV immunity, demonstrating that LMP1 signaling alone is sufficient to induce a prominent cytotoxic CD4 response, and suggest strategies for immunotherapy in EBV-related and other cancers.


DOI

doi:10.1073/pnas.1713607115