- K. Nimptsch
- Wheat and rice in disease prevention and health : benefits, risks and mechanisms of whole grains in health promotion
It has been proposed that the high incidence of prostate cancer in Western countries and the increase in incidence rates over the past 50 years may be partly due to the low content of fiber and whole grains in the Western diet. Animal and experimental studies have shown that whole grain products have beneficial effects on prostate cancer progression, including delayed tumor growth and enhanced tumor cell apoptosis. During the industrial refining process the outer bran layers as well as the germ of the grains are removed, and with them a variety of bioactive substances, including fiber, antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, and phytoestrogens, which may exert cancer-protective effects through multiple and partly overlapping biological mechanisms. Epidemiological studies investigating the association between whole grain or fiber intake and risk of incidence of prostate cancer have not provided strong evidence for a prostate cancer-preventive effect of a diet rich in whole grains or dietary fiber.