Accelerated fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging of the heart using a self-calibrated split-echo approach


  • S. Klix
  • F. Hezel
  • K. Fuchs
  • J. Ruff
  • M.A. Dieringer
  • T. Niendorf


  • PLoS ONE


  • PLoS ONE 9 (4): e94654


  • PURPOSE: Design, validation and application of an accelerated fast spin-echo (FSE) variant that uses a split-echo approach for self-calibrated parallel imaging. METHODS: For self-calibrated, split-echo FSE (SCSE-FSE), extra displacement gradients were incorporated into FSE to decompose odd and even echo groups which were independently phase encoded to derive coil sensitivity maps, and to generate undersampled data (reduction factor up to R = 3). Reference and undersampled data were acquired simultaneously. SENSE reconstruction was employed. RESULTS: The feasibility of SCSE-FSE was demonstrated in phantom studies. Point spread function performance of SCSE-FSE was found to be competitive with traditional FSE variants. The immunity of SCSE-FSE for motion induced mis-registration between reference and undersampled data was shown using a dynamic left ventricular model and cardiac imaging. The applicability of black blood prepared SCSE-FSE for cardiac imaging was demonstrated in healthy volunteers including accelerated multi-slice per breath-hold imaging and accelerated high spatial resolution imaging. CONCLUSION: SCSE-FSE obviates the need of external reference scans for SENSE reconstructed parallel imaging with FSE. SCSE-FSE reduces the risk for mis-registration between reference scans and accelerated acquisitions. SCSE-FSE is feasible for imaging of the heart and of large cardiac vessels but also meets the needs of brain, abdominal and liver imaging.