Diagnostic and prognostic performance of renal compartment volume and the apparent diffusion coefficient obtained from magnetic resonance imaging in mild, moderate and severe diabetic kidney disease


  • K. Zhao
  • S. Li
  • Y. Liu
  • Q. Li
  • H. Lin
  • Z. Wu
  • E. Seeliger
  • T. Niendorf
  • Z. Liu
  • W. Wang


  • Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery


  • Quant Imaging Med Surg 13 (6): 3973-3987


  • BACKGROUND: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). There are unmet needs for noninvasive diagnosis and prognosis prediction of DKD in clinical practice. This study examines the diagnostic and prognostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) markers of renal compartment volume and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for mild, moderate, and severe DKD. METHODS: This study was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Center (registration number: ChiCTR-RRC-17012687). Sixty-seven DKD patients were prospectively randomly enrolled and underwent clinical examination and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Patients with comorbidities that affected renal volumes or components were excluded. Ultimately, 52 DKD patients were included in the cross-sectional analysis. The ADC in the renal cortex (ADC(cortex)), ADC in the renal medulla (ADC(medulla)) and difference between ADC(cortex) and ADC(medulla) (ΔADC) were measured using a twelve-layer concentric objects (TLCO) approach. Renal compartment volumes of the parenchyma and pelvis were derived from T2-weighted MRI. Due to lost contact or ESRD diagnosed before follow-up (n=14), only 38 DKD patients remained for follow-up (median period =8.25 years) to investigate the correlations between MR markers and renal outcomes. The primary outcomes were the composite of doubling of the primary serum creatinine concentration or ESRD. RESULTS: ADC(cortex) presented superior performance in discriminating DKD with normal and declined estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over ADC(medulla), ΔADC and renal compartment volumes with an AUC of 0.904 (sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 91%) and was moderately correlated with the clinical biomarkers eGFR and proteinuria (P<0.05). The Cox survival analysis demonstrated that ADC(cortex) rather than ΔADC is a predictor of renal outcomes with a hazard ratio of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.1–10.2, P<0.05) independent of baseline eGFR and proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: ADC(cortex) is a valuable imaging marker for the diagnosis and prediction of renal function decline in DKD.