Differential response of the natriuretic peptide system to weight loss and exercise in overweight or obese patients


  • S. Haufe
  • J. Kaminski
  • W. Utz
  • V. Haas
  • A. Mähler
  • M.A. Daniels
  • A.L. Birkenfeld
  • R. Lichtinghagen
  • F.C. Luft
  • J. Schulz-Menger
  • S. Engeli
  • J. Jordan


  • Journal of Hypertension


  • J Hypertens 33 (7): 1458-1464


  • OBJECTIVE: Relative atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated cardiovascular and metabolic disease. We tested the hypothesis that more than 5% body weight reduction through 6 months hypocaloric dieting alters ANP release at rest and more so during exercise in overweight or obese patients. METHODS: Venous mid-regional pro-ANP concentration was assessed at rest and after incremental exhaustive exercise testing before and after weight reduction. We also measured natriuretic peptide receptor A and C mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue to gauge both ANP responsiveness and clearance mechanisms. RESULTS: The average weight reduction of 9.1 +/- 3.8 kg was associated with reductions in visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat mass, liver fat content, insulin resistance, and ambulatory blood pressure. However, mid-regional pro-ANP plasma concentrations were unchanged with weight loss (51 +/- 24 vs. 53 +/- 24 pmol/l). Exercise elicited similar acute mid-regional pro-ANP increases before and after weight loss. Adipose tissue natriuretic peptide receptor type A mRNA expression remained unchanged, whereas natriuretic peptide receptor type C mRNA decreased with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that physical exercise acutely increases ANP release in obese patients, whereas modest diet-induced weight loss primarily affects ANP clearance mechanisms. Interventions combining weight loss and regular physical exercise may be particularly efficacious in reversing obesity-associated relative natriuretic peptide deficiency.