23Na magnetic resonance imaging of tissue sodium


  • C. Kopp
  • P. Linz
  • L. Wachsmuth
  • A. Dahlmann
  • T. Horbach
  • C. Schoefl
  • W. Renz
  • D. Santoro
  • T. Niendorf
  • D.N. Mueller
  • M. Neininger
  • A. Cavallaro
  • K.U. Eckardt
  • R.E. Schmieder
  • F.C. Luft
  • M. Uder
  • J. Titze


  • Hypertension


  • Hypertension 59 (1): 167-172


  • Hypertension is linked to disturbed total-body sodium (Na(+)) regulation; however, measuring Na(+) disposition in the body is difficult. We implemented (23)Na magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((23)Na-MR) and imaging technique ((23)Na-MRI) at 9.4T for animals and 3T for humans to quantify Na(+) content in skeletal muscle and skin. We compared (23)Na-MRI data with actual tissue Na(+) content measured by chemical analysis in animal and human tissue. We then quantified tissue Na(+) content in normal humans and in patients with primary aldosteronism. We found a 29% increase in muscle Na(+) content in patients with aldosteronism compared with normal women and men. This tissue Na(+) was mobilized after successful treatment without accompanying weight loss. We suggest that, after further refinements, this tool could facilitate understanding the relationships between Na(+) accumulation and hypertension. Furthermore, with additional technical advances, a future clinical use may be possible.