Macrocephaly and digital anomalies expand the phenotypic spectrum of PGAP2 variants in hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome 3 (HPMRS3)


  • S. Susgun
  • A. Ben-Mahmoud
  • F. Rüschendorf
  • B. Ku
  • S.I. Hussain
  • S. Schulz
  • O. Puk
  • S. Biskup
  • J.D.J. Labonne
  • D.W. Don
  • V. Gupta
  • T.I. Choi
  • S. Khan
  • N. Wasif
  • Y. Lacassie
  • L.C. Layman
  • S.A. Ugur Iseri
  • C.H. Kim
  • H.G. Kim


  • Human Mutation


  • Hum Mutat 2024: 1-13


  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) anchor over 150 proteins as GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) with crucial roles in diverse biological processes. The highly conserved biosynthesis of GPI-APs involves precise steps with at least 21 genes, categorized as PIG and PGAP genes. Pathogenic variants in these genes are linked to human diseases, highlighting the importance of each biosynthesis step. PGAP2 stands out among these genes due to its association with an expanded clinical spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) phenotypes with biallelic pathogenic variants. We present four patients from two families, one consanguineous and the other nonconsanguineous, each displaying distinct clinical presentations, including intellectual disability, hyperphosphatasia, hearing impairment, and epilepsy, as well as craniofacial and digital anomalies. Genetic analyses revealed homozygous and novel compound heterozygous missense variants in PGAP2 in four affected individuals, confirming the molecular diagnosis of hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome 3 (HPMRS3). Importantly, the three amino acids affected by missense variants exhibit complete conservation in 10 vertebrate species, illuminating their crucial role in the gene’s functionality. Protein modeling provided additional evidence for the pathogenicity of the three substitutions, demonstrating their detrimental impact on protein folding and putative protein-protein interactions, ultimately leading to impaired protein function. The four patients in our study displayed common phenotypic features, such as brachydactyly, camptodactyly, and syndactyly, which have not been previously documented in individuals with PGAP2 variants. Notably, the occurrence of macrocephaly in two affected brothers from a consanguineous Pakistani family represents a novel finding. These previously unreported digital anomalies, along with macrocephaly and the identification of novel compound heterozygous variants, contribute to the expansion of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of HPMRS3 associated with PGAP2 variants.