Protocol of the Berlin Long-term Observation of Vascular Events (BeLOVE): a prospective cohort study with deep phenotyping and long-term follow up of cardiovascular high-risk patients


  • J.E. Weber
  • M. Ahmadi
  • L.H. Boldt
  • K.U. Eckardt
  • F. Edelmann
  • H. Gerhardt
  • U. Grittner
  • K. Haubold
  • N. Hübner
  • J. Kollmus-Heege
  • U. Landmesser
  • D.M. Leistner
  • K. Mai
  • D.N. Müller
  • C.H. Nolte
  • B. Pieske
  • S.K. Piper
  • S. Rattan
  • G. Rauch
  • S. Schmidt
  • K.M. Schmidt-Ott
  • K. Schönrath
  • J. Schulz-Menger
  • O. Schweizerhof
  • B. Siegerink
  • J. Spranger
  • V.S. Ramachandran
  • M. Witzenrath
  • M. Endres
  • T. Pischon


  • BMJ Open


  • BMJ Open 13 (10): e076415


  • INTRODUCTION: The Berlin Long-term Observation of Vascular Events is a prospective cohort study that aims to improve prediction and disease-overarching mechanistic understanding of cardiovascular (CV) disease progression by comprehensively investigating a high-risk patient population with different organ manifestations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 8000 adult patients will be recruited who have either suffered an acute CV event (CVE) requiring hospitalisation or who have not experienced a recent acute CVE but are at high CV risk. An initial study examination is performed during the acute treatment phase of the index CVE or after inclusion into the chronic high risk arm. Deep phenotyping is then performed after ~90 days and includes assessments of the patient's medical history, health status and behaviour, cardiovascular, nutritional, metabolic, and anthropometric parameters, and patient-related outcome measures. Biospecimens are collected for analyses including 'OMICs' technologies (e.g., genomics, metabolomics, proteomics). Subcohorts undergo MRI of the brain, heart, lung and kidney, as well as more comprehensive metabolic, neurological and CV examinations. All participants are followed up for up to 10 years to assess clinical outcomes, primarily major adverse CVEs and patient-reported (value-based) outcomes. State-of-the-art clinical research methods, as well as emerging techniques from systems medicine and artificial intelligence, will be used to identify associations between patient characteristics, longitudinal changes and outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin ethics committee (EA1/066/17). The results of the study will be disseminated through international peer-reviewed publications and congress presentations. STUDY REGISTRATION: First study phase: Approved WHO primary register: German Clinical Trials Register:; WHO International Clinical Registry Platform: Recruitment started on July 18, 2017.Second study phase: Approved WHO primary register: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00023323, date of registration: November 4, 2020, URL: DRKS00023323. Recruitment started on January 1, 2021.