Novel targets, treatments, and advanced models for intracerebral haemorrhage


  • M. Zille
  • T.D. Farr
  • R.F. Keep
  • C. Römer
  • G. Xi
  • J. Boltze


  • EBioMedicine


  • EBioMedicine 76: 103880


  • Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the second most common type of stroke and a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Despite advances in surgical interventions and acute ICH management, there is currently no effective therapy to improve functional outcomes in patients. Recently, there has been tremendous progress uncovering new pathophysiological mechanisms underlying ICH that may pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions. Here, we highlight emerging targets, but also existing gaps in preclinical animal modelling that prevent their exploitation. We particularly focus on (1) ICH aetiology, (2) the haematoma, (3) inflammation, and (4) post-ICH pathology. It is important to recognize that beyond neurons and the brain, other cell types and organs are crucially involved in ICH pathophysiology and successful interventions likely will need to address the entire organism. This review will spur the development of successful therapeutic interventions for ICH and advanced animal models that better reflect its aetiology and pathophysiology.