Controlled release of therapeutics from thermoresponsive
nanogels: a thermal magnetic resonance feasibility study


  • Y. Ji
  • L. Winter
  • L. Navarro
  • M.C. Ku
  • J.S. Periquito
  • M. Pham
  • W. Hoffmann
  • L.E. Theune
  • M. Calderón
  • T. Niendorf


  • Cancers


  • Cancers 12 (6): 1380


  • Thermal magnetic resonance (ThermalMR) accommodates radio frequency (RF)-induced temperature modulation, thermometry, anatomic and functional imaging, and (nano)molecular probing in an integrated RF applicator. This study examines the feasibility of ThermalMR for the controlled release of a model therapeutics from thermoresponsive nanogels using a 7.0-tesla whole-body MR scanner en route to local drug-delivery-based anticancer treatments. The capacity of ThermalMR is demonstrated in a model system involving the release of fluorescein-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA-FITC, a model therapeutic) from nanometer-scale polymeric networks. These networks contain thermoresponsive polymers that bestow environmental responsiveness to physiologically relevant changes in temperature. The release profile obtained for the reference data derived from a water bath setup used for temperature stimulation is in accordance with the release kinetics deduced from the ThermalMR setup. In conclusion, ThermalMR adds a thermal intervention dimension to an MRI device and provides an ideal testbed for the study of the temperature-induced release of drugs, magnetic resonance (MR) probes, and other agents from thermoresponsive carriers. Integrating diagnostic imaging, temperature intervention, and temperature response control, ThermalMR is conceptually appealing for the study of the role of temperature in biology and disease and for the pursuit of personalized therapeutic drug delivery approaches for better patient care.