Design, construction, and evaluation of a dynamic MR compatible cardiac left ventricle model


  • M.A. Dieringer
  • J. Hentschel
  • T. de Quadros
  • F. von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff
  • W. Hoffmann
  • T. Niendorf
  • J. Schulz-Menger


  • Medical Physics


  • Med Phys 39 (8): 4800-4806


  • Purpose: Development of magnetic resonance (MR) sequences is important to answer clinical questions and to overcome current limitations. To meet the challenges of cardiac MR, dynamic and reproducible testing conditions are required. We aimed at developing a dynamic MR-compatible cardiac left ventricle model that imitates myocardial tissue properties and simulates dynamic motion.Methods: A dynamic left ventricle silicone model was designed to match myocardial T(1) and T(2) relaxation times. Silicone mixtures were explored to replicate T(2) values of myocardial edema. A controllable piston pump was constructed to produce pulsatile flow paradigms. They were validated against flow sensors and MR data, including SSFP-based and phase-contrast-based sequences. A dedicated software interface was developed for the control.Results: Model dimensions represented cardiac left ventricle dimensions of healthy men. The range of end diastolic volumes was 85-175 ml, depending on the driven stroke volume. Stroke volume quantification for flow paradigms of 30∕60∕90∕120 ml resulted in 29.2∕57.6∕88.8∕118.4 ml by MR volumetry, 29.6∕59.9∕89.4∕119.0 ml by phase contrast measurements, and 29.9∕60.4∕91.1∕120.9 ml by flow meter revealing consistency. The system accurately replicated physiological and pathophysiological flow paradigms. The silicon model exhibited T(1) of 1002 ± 8 ms, T(2) of 58 ± 1 ms. Signal intensities (a.u.) of the ventricle model were 128 ± 23 for FGRE (vs 138 ± 17 in vivo) and 1156 ± 37 for b-SSFP (vs 991 ± 96 in vivo). T(2) of 75 ± 2 ms was achieved for the myocardial pathology.Conclusions: We developed a controllable left ventricle model resembling MR signal characteristics of human myocardium, including pathological conditions, and allowing for the replication of contraction and flow paradigms.