Endothelial overexpression of TGF-β-induced protein impairs venous thrombus resolution


  • M.L. Bochenek
  • K. Saar
  • M. Nazari-Jahantigh
  • R. Gogiraju
  • C.B. Wiedenroth
  • T. Münzel
  • E. Mayer
  • L. Fink
  • A. Schober
  • N. Hübner
  • S. Guth
  • S. Konstantinides
  • K. Schäfer


  • JACC: Basic to Translational Science


  • JACC Basic Transl Sci 9 (1): 100-116


  • Endothelial cells play a critical role during venous thrombus remodeling, and unresolved, fibrotic thrombi with irregular vessels obstruct the pulmonary artery in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This study sought to identify endothelial mediators of impaired venous thrombus resolution and to determine their role in the pathogenesis of the vascular obstructions in patients with CTEPH. Endothelial cells outgrown from pulmonary endarterectomy specimens (PEA) were processed for mRNA profiling, and nCounter gene expression and immunohistochemistry analysis of PEA tissue microarrays and immunoassays of plasma were used to validate the expression in CTEPH. Lentiviral overexpression in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) and exogenous administration of the recombinant protein into C57BL/6J mice after inferior Vena cava ligation were employed to assess their role for venous thrombus resolution. RT2 PCR profiler analysis demonstrated the significant overexpression of factors downstream of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), that is TGFβ-Induced Protein (TGFBI or BIGH3) and transgelin (TAGLN), or involved in TGFβ signaling, that is follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) and stanniocalcin-2 (STC2). Gene expression and immunohistochemistry analysis of tissue microarrays localized potential disease candidates to vessel-rich regions. Lentiviral overexpression of TGFBI in HPAECs increased fibrotic remodeling of human blood clots in vitro, and exogenous administration of recombinant TGFBI in mice delayed venous thrombus resolution. Significantly elevated plasma TGFBI levels were observed in patients with CTEPH and decreased after PEA. Our findings suggest that overexpression of TGFBI in endothelial promotes venous thrombus non-resolution and fibrosis and is causally involved in the pathophysiology of CTEPH.