Essential practical steps for MRI of the kidney in experimental research


  • A. Pohlmann
  • J.S. Periquito
  • T. Niendorf


  • Methods in Molecular Biology


  • Methods Mol Biol 2216: 349-367


  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging method to obtain valuable functional and structural information about the kidney noninvasively. Before performing specialized MR measurements for probing tissue structure and function, some essential practical steps are needed, which are common for most applications. Here we describe in a step-by-step manner how to (1) achieve the double-oblique slice orientation coronal-to-the-kidney, (2) adapt the scan protocol for avoiding aortic flow artifacts and covering both kidneys, (3) perform localized shimming on the kidney, and (4) check perfusion in the large renal blood vessels using time-of-flight (TOF) angiography. The procedures are tailored to preclinical MRI but conceptionally are also applicable to human MRI.This chapter is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This experimental protocol chapter explains the initial and essential MRI steps that precede specific functional and structural MR imaging techniques (T(1)- and T(2)*-mapping, DWI , ASL , etc.), which are described in separate chapters.