Experimental protocol for MRI mapping of the blood oxygenation-sensitive parameters T(2)* and T(2) in the kidney


  • A. Pohlmann
  • K. Zhao
  • S.B. Fain
  • P.V. Prasad
  • T. Niendorf


  • Methods in Molecular Biology


  • Methods Mol Biol 2216: 403-417


  • Renal hypoxia is generally accepted as a key pathophysiologic event in acute kidney injury of various origins, and has also been suggested to play a role in the development of chronic kidney disease. Here we describe a step-by-step experimental protocol for indirect monitoring of renal blood oxygenation in rodents via the deoxyhemoglobin sensitive MR parameters T(2)* and T(2)-a contrast mechanism known as the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect. Since an absolute quantification of renal oxygenation from T(2)*/T(2) remains challenging, the effects of controlled and standardized variations in the fraction of inspired oxygen are used for bench marking. This MRI method may be useful for investigating renal blood oxygenation of small rodents in vivo under various experimental (patho)physiological conditions.This chapter is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This experimental protocol chapter is complemented by two separate chapters describing the basic concept and data analysis.