An integrated pharmacological, structural, and genetic analysis of extracellular versus intracellular ROS production in neutrophils


  • C.D. Ellson
  • I. Goretti Riça
  • J.S. Kim
  • Y.M.M. Huang
  • D. Lim
  • T. Mitra
  • A. Hsu
  • E.X. Wei
  • C.D. Barrett
  • L.E. Otterbein
  • C.J. Hauser
  • M. Wahl
  • H. Delbrück
  • U. Heinemann
  • H. Oschkinat
  • C.E.A. Chang
  • M.B. Yaffe


  • Journal of Molecular Biology


  • J Mol Biol 434 (9): 167533


  • The neutrophil NADPH oxidase produces both intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although oxidase activity is essential for microbial killing, and ROS can act as signaling molecules in the inflammatory process, excessive extracellular ROS directly contributes to inflammatory tissue damage, as well as to cancer progression and immune dysregulation in the tumor microenvironment. How specific signaling pathways contribute to ROS localization is unclear. Here we used a systems pharmacology approach to identify the specific Class I PI3-K isoform p110β, and PLD1, but not PLD2, as critical regulators of extracellular, but not intracellular ROS production in primary neutrophils. Combined crystallographic and molecular dynamics analysis of the PX domain of the oxidase component p47phox, which binds the lipid products of PI 3-K and PLD, was used to clarify the membrane-binding mechanism and guide the design of mutant mice whose p47phox is unable to bind 3-phosphorylated inositol phospholipids. Neutrophils from these K43A mutant animals were specifically deficient in extracellular, but not intracellular, ROS production, and showed increased dependency on signaling through the remaining PLD1 arm. These findings identify the PX domain of p47phox as a critical integrator of PLD1 and p110β signaling for extracellular ROS production, and as a potential therapeutic target for modulating tissue damage and extracellular signaling during inflammation.