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Small-molecule lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5 (LPAR5) antagonists: versatile pharmacological tools to regulate inflammatory signaling in BV-2 microglia cells

Authors

  • I. Plastira
  • L. Joshi
  • E. Bernhart
  • J. Schoene
  • E. Specker
  • M. Nazare
  • W. Sattler

Journal

  • Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Citation

  • Front Cell Neurosci 13: 531

Abstract

  • Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species in the extracellular environment induce downstream signaling via six different G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR1-6). These signaling cascades are essential for normal brain development and function of the nervous system. However, in response to acute or chronic central nervous system (CNS) damage, LPA levels increase and aberrant signaling events can counteract brain function. Under neuro-inflammatory conditions signaling along the LPA/LPAR5 axis induces a potentially neurotoxic microglia phenotype indicating the need for new pharmacological intervention strategies. Therefore, we compared the effects of two novel small-molecule LPAR5 antagonists on LPA-induced polarization parameters of the BV-2 microglia cell line. AS2717638 is a selective piperidine-based LPAR5 antagonist (IC(50) 0.038 μM) while compound 3 is a diphenylpyrazole derivative with an IC(50) concentration of 0.7 μM in BV-2 cells. Both antagonists compromised cell viability, however, at concentrations above their IC(50) concentrations. Both inhibitors blunted LPA-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3, p65, and c-Jun and consequently reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cyto-/chemokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, CXCL10, CXCL2, and CCL5) at non-toxic concentrations. Both compounds modulated the expression of intracellular (COX-2 and Arg1) and plasma membrane-located (CD40, CD86, and CD206) polarization markers yet only AS2717638 attenuated the neurotoxic potential of LPA-activated BV-2 cell-conditioned medium towards CATH.a neurons. Our findings from the present in vitro study suggest that the two LPAR5 antagonists represent valuable pharmacological tools to interfere with LPA-induced pro-inflammatory signaling cascades in microglia.


DOI

doi:10.3389/fncel.2019.00531