Spinophilin regulates central angiotensin II-mediated effect on blood pressure


  • A.C. da Costa Goncalves
  • M.A. Fontes
  • E. Klussmann
  • F. Qadri
  • J. Janke
  • M. Gollasch
  • J. Schleifenbaum
  • D. Mueller
  • J. Jordan
  • J. Tank
  • F.C. Luft
  • V. Gross


  • Journal of Molecular Medicine


  • J Mol Med 89 (12): 1219-1229


  • Central angiotensin II (AngII) plays an important role in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. The underlining molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Spinophilin (SPL) is a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Deletion of SPL induces sympathetically mediated arterial hypertension in mice. We tested the hypothesis that SPL restrains blood pressure (BP) by regulating AngII activity. We equipped SPL(-/-) and SPL(+/+) mice with telemetric devices and applied AngII (1.0 mg kg(-1) day(-1), minipumps) or the AngII subtype 1 receptor (AT1-R) blocker valsartan (50 mg kg(-1) day(-1), gavage). We assessed autonomic nervous system activity through intraperitoneal application of trimethaphan, metoprolol, and atropine. We also tested the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) AngII on blood pressure in SPL(-/-) and in SPL(+/+) mice. Chronic infusion of AngII upregulates SPL expression in the hypothalamus of SPL(+/+) mice. Compared with SPL(+/+) mice, SPL(-/-) mice showed a greater increase in daytime BP with AngII (19.2 ± 0.8 vs. 13.5 ± 1.6 mmHg, p < 0.05). SPL(-/-) showed a greater depressor response to valsartan. BP and heart rate decreased more with trimethaphan and metoprolol in AngII-treated SPL(-/-) than in AngII-treated SPL(+/+) mice. SPL(-/-) mice responded more to icv AngII. Furthermore, brainstem AT1-R and AngII type 2 receptor (AT2-R) expression was reduced in SPL(-/-) mice. AngII treatment normalized AT1-R and AT2-R expression levels. In summary, our findings suggest that SPL restrains AngII-mediated sympathetic nervous system activation. SPL is a hitherto unrecognized molecule with regard to central blood pressure control and may pave the way to novel strategies for the treatment of hypertension.