Diverse effects of obesity on antitumor immunity and immunotherapy
- L. Dyck
- L. Lynch
- Trends in Molecular Medicine
- Trends Mol Med 29 (2): 112-123
Currently, obesity is one of the biggest health burdens facing society because it causes several comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and heart disease. Obesity is also linked to multiple types of cancer. Obesity is the second most common preventable cause of cancer after smoking; the rates of obesity are increasing worldwide, as are the rates of obesity-associated cancer. Multiple factors link obesity to cancer, such as increased levels of growth hormones and adipokines, gut dysbiosis, altered tumor metabolism, and chronic low-grade inflammation. More recently, obesity has been shown to also affect the immune response against cancer. In this review we discuss the interplay between obesity, the immune system, and cancer.