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Palliative treatment of uncontrollable hypercalcemia due to parathyrotoxicosis: denosumab as rescue therapy

Authors

  • R. Jumpertz von Schwartzenberg
  • U. Elbelt
  • M. Ventz
  • K. Mai
  • T. Kienitz
  • L Maurer
  • T. Rose
  • J.C. Rueckert
  • C.J. Strasburger
  • J. Spranger

Journal

  • Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism Case Reports

Citation

  • Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2015: 150082

Abstract

  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease leading to severe hypercalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism. Surgery is the primary treatment option. A more progressive form of the disease is characterized by parathyrotoxicosis, and subsequent hypercalcemia is the most common cause of death. We report a case presenting with severe hypercalcemia due to parathyrotoxicosis from parathyroid carcinoma treated for the first time using the monoclonal antibody denosumab as a rescue therapy and present long-term follow-up data. The 71-year-old patient presented with severe hypercalcemia due to metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. Despite undergoing treatment with bisphosphonates, cinacalcet hydrochloride, and forced diuresis, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly due to resistant hypercalcemia. Surgery performed because of spinal metastasis and forced diuresis lowered calcium levels, albeit they remained in the hypercalcemic range and significantly increased when forced diuresis was stopped. Considering a palliative situation to overcome hypercalcemia, we decided to administer denosumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand. After a single subcutaneous administration of 60 mg denosumab, calcium levels normalized within one day. Subsequent denosumab injections led to permanent control of serum calcium for more than 2 years despite rising parathyroid hormone levels and repeated surgeries. Together with recent cases in the literature supporting our observation, we believe that denosumab is relevant for future trials and represents an effective tool to control hypercalcemia in patients with advanced stages of parathyroid cancer.


DOI

doi:10.1530/EDM-15-0082