Sodium as an important regulator of immunometabolism


  • H. Miyauchi
  • S. Geisberger
  • F.C. Luft
  • N. Wilck
  • J. Stegbauer
  • H. Wiig
  • R. Dechend
  • J. Jantsch
  • M. Kleinewietfeld
  • S. Kempa
  • D.N. Mueller


  • Hypertension


  • Hypertension 81 (3): 426-435


  • Salt sensitivity concerns blood pressure alterations after a change in salt intake (sodium chloride). The heart is a pump, and vessels are tubes; sodium can affect both. A high salt intake increases cardiac output, promotes vascular dysfunction and capillary rarefaction, and chronically leads to increased systemic vascular resistance. More recent findings suggest that sodium also acts as an important second messenger regulating energy metabolism and cellular functions. Besides endothelial cells and fibroblasts, sodium also affects innate and adaptive immunometabolism, immune cell function, and influences certain microbes and microbiota-derived metabolites. We propose the idea that the definition of salt sensitivity should be expanded beyond high blood pressure to cellular and molecular salt sensitivity.