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Inhibition of serotonin synthesis: a novel therapeutic paradigm

Authors

  • M. Bader

Journal

  • Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Citation

  • Pharmacol Ther

Abstract

  • The rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis is tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). There are two independent serotonin systems in the body characterized by two isoforms of TPH, TPH1 and TPH2. While TPH2 synthesizes serotonin in the brain, TPH1 is expressed in the gut and in other peripheral tissues and supplies platelets in the circulation with serotonin. This duality of the serotonin system is enforced by the blood-brain barrier which is impermeable for serotonin. In the brain serotonin acts as neurotransmitter and is a main target for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In the periphery it is released by platelets at the site of activation and elicits numerous physiological effects. TPH1 deficient mice were shown to be protected from diverse diseases including hemostatic, inflammatory, fibrotic, gastrointestinal, and metabolic disorders and therefore serotonin synthesis inhibition emerged as a reasonable therapeutic paradigm. Recently the first TPH inhibitor, telotristat ethyl, came on the market for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome. This review summarizes the state of development and the therapeutic opportunities of such compounds.


DOI

doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.107423