HIV-infected H9 T cell

Future Topic: Immunology & Inflammation

The Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association

The Initiative

Five Helmholtz Centers are joining forces in a new initiative that aims to advance immunology research and the development of new therapies. The MDC is coordinating the long-term project, which was launched in November 2017 with a three-year program.

There is a mood of optimism among the immunology community, because the past few years have seen great strides made in immune system research. The first immunology therapies have been approved, while others are being tested in clinical trials. Researchers are uncovering ever more details about the complex system of organs, tissues, and different cell types that make up the human immune system.

The initiative entitled “Immunology & Inflammation” brings together immunology research – which is spread out over various Helmholtz Centers – in a common structure. Of twenty projects, six are organized as “tandem” projects in which laboratories of different Centers work closely together.

MDC researchers Michela Di Virgilio and Klaus Rajewsky are leading and coordinating the initiative. It is the nucleus for an undertaking that intends to position the Helmholtz Association as a main player in application-oriented immunology research internationally.

Key scientific questions addressed by the initiative

  • How is the tissue specificity of immune cells generated and how is it affected by environmental influences, plasticity and the tissue microenvironment? 

  • What is the mechanistic link between infections, immune reactions and their microenvironment, inflammatory responses and central nervous system disorders, including neurodegenerative disease, and how can we use this information to better understand and treat these disorders? 

  • How can our knowledge of the immune system be applied to develop innovative therapies, including the identification of novel antigens for immune therapies and gene repair strategies in monogenic immune diseases?

The Helmholtz Centres have a broad repertoire of state-of-the-art technologies and expertise to work on these topics. Examples are CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis, genetic mouse models, cell-fate-mapping, organoids and tumor explants, as well as GMP production of pharmaceuticals and many years of experience in conducting clinical studies.

Aside from new and joint research projects, the training of the next generation of basic and clinical researchers in immunology, as well as scientific exchange, is also in the focus of the future topic.

Featured picture: Scanning electromicrograph of an HIV-infected H9 T cell. Credit: NIAID, cc-by-2.0


These 23 research teams are taking part in the initiative:

Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC)

The MDC is devoted to understanding the molecular basis of health and disease, with a focus on disease mechanisms at a system-wide level and the translation of findings into clinical applications.

It cooperates closely with Charité, a large university hospital in Berlin. Joint institutions include the Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC ) und the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH ).

One of the research areas at the MDC is immunology and inflammation, which covers tumor immunology, DNA repair in B lymphocytes, the role of tumor stroma-immune cell interaction in cancers, the role of innate immune cells in gliomas and neurodegenerative diseases, and the development of immunotherapy strategies.

The MDC’s participating research groups bring a broad range of technological expertise to the initiative – ranging from biochemical assays, structure and function analysis, and gene editing to the development of preclinical mouse models, GMP production, and even clinical trials.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ)

The DKFZ is a multidisciplinary center covering cancer biology from basic molecular and cell biology to clinical research and care.

Through the National Center for Tumor Diseases, a joint venture between the DKFZ, Heidelberg University Hospital, and German Cancer Fund, the DKFZ has access to patients for research from bench to bedside and back. The participating groups of the DKFZ bring in broad expertise in fundamental and clinical tumor immunology, the link between cancer, chronic inflammation and viral infection, neuroimmunology, and immune surveillance of tumors.

The center will contribute technological expertise crucial to the success of the proposal, such as the generation and characterization of pre-clinical mouse models, in vivo fate mapping, GMP production, and innovative clinical trials.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE)

The DZNE focuses on neurodegenerative disease, covering both research on the fundamental molecular and cellular basis of neurodegenerative disease as well as clinical and population research.

The participating groups cover an especially exciting area of research, namely the link between innate immune and inflammatory mechanisms to neurodegenerative disease. The center will provide expertise on profiling neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and neuronal function including in vivo imaging, CNS histology, generation of human-derived cellular models, and their functional assessment under physiological and pathological circumstances.

Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU)

The HMGU aims to contribute significantly to a better understanding of major non-communicable common diseases which develop from lifestyle, environmental factors and personal genetic background, most notably diabetes and allergy.

The overall goal of HMGU’s research is to elucidate the complex disease causes and to develop innovative approaches for their precise diagnosis, prevention and therapy. The participating groups bring in their expertise in the basic molecular mechanisms of T cell signaling, activation, and tolerance, as well as T cell immunity and immunotherapy in diabetes, allergy and lung diseases.

The center will contribute important technological expertise in the generation and provision of novel pre-clinical mouse models, tools to fate map tumor cells and immune cells, and a translational approach for CRISPR/Cas9-based gene therapy of monogenic diseases.

Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI)

The HZI has expertise in the area of infectious diseases, investigating the fundamental principles underlying infection processes to develop innovative approaches to prevent, diagnose and treat infectious diseases.

In this context, the host’s innate and adaptive immune responses to infection, evasion mechanisms that allow pathogens to circumvent the host defenses, and underlying mechanisms of pathogen clearance are dissected.

Within this proposal, the HZI will contribute expertise in epigenetic imprinting for the identification of immune cell subsets, epigenome-editing of T cells using CRISPR/Cas9, predictive mathematical models, mouse behavioral analysis, as well as expertise in clinical trials and GMP production of antibodies and immune cells.


Inflammation processes and interactions between the adaptive and innate immune systems play a major role in both infections and cancers – as well as in nearly every widespread human disease.

Since a comprehensive approach to the immune system would be as complex as the system itself, we concentrate on three interconnected central and timely topics in immunology, which are addressed in three scientific work packages (WP).

WP 1. Tissue-Specific Immune Cells

WP1 concerns the factors that determine the tissue- and organ-specificity of immune cells, a topic that is gaining rapidly increasing attention and may become ever more central in understanding as well as treating immune-related diseases. Decisive factors will be tackled in the following aims:

  1. the genetically determined developmental programs that lead to immune cell specificity and function,
  2. the influence of external (environmental) factors on innate and adaptive immunity and its plasticity,
  3. the effects and mediators of the tissue microenvironment in shaping immune cell functions, and
  4. as a specific example the interplay of tumor microenvironment and cancer cells, which allows the latter to escape immune surveillance.

WP 2. Immunity, Infection and Inflammation in the CNS

WP2 explores a second major example of the impact of a specific environment on the immune system by addressing the characteristics of immunity, infection and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS), processes that have recently been demonstrated to play major roles in many CNS disorders, notably neurodegeneration, but also neuropsychiatric diseases. Its specific aims concern

  1. functional and regional diversity of microglia, the innate immune cells of the CNS,
  2. microglia-mediated inflammation as a major causative mechanism in neurodegenerative disorders, and
  3. the interplay between infection and neurodegeneration, an interplay that occurs both in CNS-based and peripheral infection.

WP 3. Innovative Therapies

WP3 addresses innovative therapies that result from research of WP1 and WP2 and enables the translation of these findings into the clinic. Based on the first, currently ongoing clinical trials of such innovative therapeutic strategies, notably in cancer, the specific aims of WP3 will cover

  1. harnessing the adaptive and innate immune response against tumors,
  2. the search for and characterization of novel antigens for targeted T cell therapy, the bottleneck in cellular therapies, and
  3. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene therapy of monogenic immunodeficiencies as pioneer projects.


A key aim of the initiative is to bring together a community of excellent researchers from all centers in the Helmholtz Research Field Health.

Several collaborative efforts within the consortium already exist and have yielded results which could not have been achieved by single research groups. Examples include common studies investigating connections between infections (HZI) and neurodegeneration (DZNE), or studies on the role of inflammation in metastasis and dissemination of tumor cells (DKFZ) and (MDC), as well as the role of chronic inflammation (DKFZ) and programed cell death in controlling DNA damage (MDC).

To enable and foster projects that cannot be done at a single Helmholtz Center, we have enhanced interactions by funding six collaborative projects, i.e. projects implemented by pre- and/or post-doctoral researchers who are supervised by two PIs from different centers:

  • TCR gene therapy of pancreatic cancer through coordinated attack by mutanome-specific CD8+ and p53-specific CD4+ T-cell. Supervisors: Rienk Offringa (DKFZ) and Thomas Blankenstein (MDC)

  • A combined in vitro and in silico analysis of microglia activation to assess the potential of the voltage-gated proton channel HVCN1 as a therapeutic target in Alzheimer’s disease. Supervisors: Melania Capasso (DZNE) and Michael Meyer-Hermann (HZI)

  • Impact of AHR signalling on immunity. From structure to function. Supervisors: Michael Platten (DKFZ) and Oliver Daumke (MDC)

  • Mechanistic analysis of lymphoma-triggered dissemination to brain, liver and lymphoid tissue through crosstalk to stromal cells. Supervisors: Mathias Heikenwälder (DKFZ) and Uta Höpken (MDC)

  • Impact of nasal pollen exposure on the inflammatory milieu within the brain and the control of neurotropic virus infections (NaPo-BRAIN). Supervisors: Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann (HMGU) and Ulrich Kalinke(HZI)

  • Towards therapeutic gene editing in monogenic primary immunodeficiencies. Supervisors: Klaus Rajewsky (MDC) and Ellen Renner (HMGU)


I & I  3rd Retreat

September 30 - 1. October 2020

The 2020 I&I retreat will be held online. Please, follow the link below to register yourself.

I & I Talks and Lab Visits


PhD students and postdocs from the participating labs are invited to go to a partner lab to give a talk and visit the lab.


Training Schools


PhD students and early-stage postdocs from the participating labs are invited to attend a training school. The project will also cover the attendance to Conferences and Workshops as long as the participant presents a poster or gives a talk. 

Recommended schools:

  • FEBS Immunology Summer School Link 
  • Schools organized by the DGfI Link 
  • Schools organized by the European Network of Immunology Institutes Link 

I & I 2nd Retreat

October 2019, Heidelberg

The info will be available soon.

Satellite Symposium - DGfI Meeting

September 10, 2019, Munich

All I & I researchers are welcome to join the Immunology & Inflammation Satellite Symposium that takes place in Munich on September 10, 2019. The Symposium is organized by Prof. Ellen Renner and Prof. Klaus Rajewsky. 

See the Program here. 

You can access the conference website here. 

1st I & I Conference

February 24-26, 2019, Berlin

Our 1st edition holds an exciting program that comprises four sessions covering the key new developments, their impact on life science, and implications for modern medicine. We have invited scientists among the top world-renowned experts for their standing in the field and contribution to the breakthroughs that fuelled these new areas of investigation. Young scientists will also be given the opportunity to present data through posters and short presentations. 

You can access the conference website here.

I & I 1st Retreat

November 26-27, 2017, Berlin

The I&I kick-off meeting and 1st retreat took place on 26-27 November 2017 at the Conference Venue of the Max Planck Society, Berlin. The consortium principal investigators were invited to shortly share their research work.

The agenda is available here.


In press, Cell Rep.
53BP1 supports Immunoglobulin Class Switch Recombination independently of its DNA Double-Strand D. Sundaravinayagam et al. 


April 2019, J. Neurosci. Res.
Microglial phagocytosis in ageing and Alzheimer´s disease
E. Gabande Rodriguez, L. Keane, M. Capasso


April 2019, Nat. Med.
Platelet GPIbα is a mediator and potential interventional target for NASH and subsequent liver cancer
M. Malehmir, D. Pfister, [...] A. Weber, M. Heikenwalder


March 2019, Front Immunol.
Discrepancies in the tumor microenvironment of spontaneous and orthotopic murine models of pancreatic cancer uncover a new immunostimulatory phenotype for B cells
S. Spear, J. B. Candido, [...] H. M. Kocher, M. Capasso


March 2019, Allergy 
IL-4 receptor α blockade prevents sensitization and alters acute and long-lasting effects of allergen-specific immunotherapy of murine allergic asthma
D. Russkamp, A. Aguilar-Pimentel, [...] C. B. Schmidt-Weber, S. Blank


February 2019, Cell Rep.
Blimp1 maintains regulatory T cell identity at sites of inflammation through epigenetic imprinting
G. Garg, A. Muschaweckh, [...] J. Huehn, A. Kallies, T. Korn


January 2019, Nat. Neuroscience
Loss of TREM2 function increases amyloid seeding but reduces plaque-associated ApoE
S. Parhizkar, T. Arzberger, [...] C. Haass


January 2019, Neural Plast. 
Immune Challenge Alters Reactivity of Hippocampal Noradrenergic System in Prenatally Stressed Aged Mice
G. Grigoryan, N. Lonnemann, M. Korte


November 2018, Prog Biophys Mol Biol.
PK/PD-based adaptive tailoring of oseltamivir doses to treat within-host influenza viral infections
G. Montaseri, A. Boianelli,  Hernandez-Vargas E.A., M. Meyer-Hermann 


November 2018, Brain Behav. Immun.
Microglia have a protective role in viral encephalitis-induced seizure development and hippocampal damage
I. Waltl, C. Käufer, [...] U. Kalinke, W. Löscher


October 2018, Front. Cell. Neurosci.
IFN-g producing Th1 cells induce different transcriptional profiles in microglia and astrocytes
K. P. Chittappen, O. Dittrich-Breiholz, S.R. Talbot, P.A. Robert, J. Huehn, M. Stangel 


October 2018, Cell Rep.
Type I Interferon Receptor Signaling of Neurons and Astrocytes Regulates Microglia Regulation during Viral Encephalitis
C. Chhatbar, C. N. Detje, [...] M. Stangel, U. Kalinke 


October 2018, Nat. Commun.
The olfactory epithelium as a port of entry in neonatal neurolisteriosis
D. Pägelow, C. Chhatbar, [...] U. Kalinke, [...] M. W. Hornef, M. Fulde 


September 2018, Front Immunol.
Computer Simulation of Multi-Color Brainbow Staining and Clonal Evolution of B Cells in Germinal Centers
M. Meyer-Hermann, C. Binder, L. Mesin, G.D. Victora


September 2018, PNAS
Chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 regulate viral encephalitis-induced hippocampal damage but not seizures
C. Käufer, C. Chhatbar, [...] U. Kalinke, W. Löscher


August 2018, Plos Pathog.
Interferon-beta expression and type I interferon receptor signaling of hepatocytes prevent hepatic necrosis and virus dissemination in Coxsackievirus B3-infected mice
W. Koestner, J. Spanier, [...] F. Wacker, U. Kalinke


July 2018, Nat. Med.
Suppression of antitumor T cell immunity by the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate
L. Bunse, S. Pusch, [...] W. Wick, M. Platten


April 2018, J. Hepatol.
Type I Interferon Receptor Signaling delays Kupffer cell replenishment during acute fulminant viral hepatitis
K: Borst, T. Frenz, [...] M. Heikenwaelder, G. Sutter, U. Kalinke


Mathias Heikenwälder, co-organizer of the 10th German-Israeli Cancer Research School

September 21-25, 2019 

The German-Israeli Cooperation in Cancer Research was founded in 1976 is one of the longest lasting scientific cooperations between these countries. The 10th German-Israeli Cancer Research School "The Human Microbiome in Health and Cancer" will take place in Israel on September 21-25, 2019. For more information, contact Lena Fuchs at 

Helmut Kettenmann, organizer of the Brain Tumor Meeting 2019 

May 23-24, 2019 

The 10th Brain Tumor Meeting will take place at the Max Delbrück Center für Molecular Medicine (MDC) in Berlin (Germany) on May 23 - 24, 2019.


Michael Heneka, co-organizer of the 6th Venusberg Meeting on Neuroinflammation

May 9-11, 2019 

Michael Heneka is co-organizing the 6th Venusberg Meeting on Neuroinflammation, with special emphasis on the interaction between neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory mechanisms. The meeting will take care on May 9-11 at DZNE in Bonn. 


Christian Haass, co-chair of The Brain Conferences: Understanding and targeting Alzheimer’s disease

May 5-8, 2019 

The Brain Conferences are organised by FENS in collaboration with Lundbeck Foundation, and establish a series of high-level meetings on neuroscience in Europe. The sessions on Wed. 8th May will be dedicated to Neural-Immune Interactions and Glia.


Christian Haass, keynote lecturer at the AD/PD meeting

March 26-31, 2019;

The 14th International Conference on Alzheimer´s & Parkinson´s Diseases takes place in Lisbon (Portugal) on March 26-31, where Christian Haass gave a lecture TREM2 - From basic mechanisms to human patients.


1stI & I Conference: interview to organizers Michela Di Virgilio and Klaus Rajewsky  

February 12, 2019 

Professors Michela Di Virgilio and Klaus Rajewsky speak about the conference’s aims and its outstanding program.


Melania Capasso, seminar at the Karolinska Institutet

January 18, 2019

Melania Capasso gave a seminar entitled mTOR licenses the microglia priming phenotype that accompanies ageing.

Press release: Defective immune cells in the brain cause Alzheimer’s disease

January 8, 2019

Haass and co-workers shed light on the reasons why TREM2 is so important for brain health. The study is published in Nature Neurosciences. 


Niels Halama at the ESMO Immuno-Oncology Conference 

December 16, 2018

Niels Halama gave a talk A goal for immunotherapy of pancreatic cancer, and chair the session What is new in GI oncology at the ESMO Immuno-Oncology Conference 2018 in Geneva (Switzerland).

Rienk Offringa, plenary lecturer at the 4th Symposium on Advances in Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 

November 29-1, 2018

Rienk Offringa gave a talk Intratumoral heterogeneity detected via next generation sequencing of T cell receptors at the 4th Symposium on Advances in Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy in Athens (Greece). The Symposium was organized by the Hellenic Society of Immuno-Oncology. 

Poster presentation at the 10th International Symposium of IFReC

November 5-6, 2018

Melania Capasso´s team presents a poster at the Immunosensation Cluster Science Days and 10th International Symposium of IFReC in Bonn (Germany). The title of the poster is: Voltage-gated proton channel 1 Regulates Neutrophil Activation.

Kettenmann and Haass organize a symposium: New Developments in Microglial Research

September 20-21, 2018

This SyNergy symposium that took place in Munich was jointly organized by Helmut Kettenmann (MDC) and Christian Haass (DZNE), and counted with the participation of Martin Korte (HZI) as speaker with the talk Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration.


Talk at the 10th Twincore Symposium

August 30-31, 2018

Michael Meyer-Hermann gives a talk at the 10th Twincore Symposium in Hannover (Germany) under the title How to generate optimal antibodies in in silico germinal centres.

Michael Meyer-Hermann at the 18th HFSP Awardees Meeting

July 8-11, 2018

Michael Meyer-Hermann´s presents his team´s work through a talk at the 18th HFSP awardees meeting in Toronto (Canada). The title of the talk is How a neurotransmitter controls the immune system.

Uta Höpken at the AACR International Meeting

June 22-26, 2018

Uta Höpken is an invited speaker at the Inaugural AACR International Meeting Advances in Malignant Lymphoma: Maximizing the Basic-Translational Interface for Clinical Application, which takes place in Boston (USA). The title of the talk is Dissecting microenvironmental cues that promote B-cell lymphoma growth in secondary lymphoid organs

Simon Blank at the EAACI 2018

May 26-30, 2018

Simon Blank is giving two oral presentations at the annual Congress of the European Academy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) 2018 in Munich (Germany). The presentations are about the research published on Allergy, 73 (Suppl. 105): 232 and 233 (2018): A thermosensitive hydrogel as delivery system for immunomodulatory substances and allergens during allergen-specific immunotherapy and Sustained inhibition of the IL4/IL13 receptor complex during allergen specific immunotherapy (D. Russkamp, [...] S. Blank)

Christian Haass, among The Brain Prize Winners 2018

May 2018

Christian Haass received the prestigious prize 'for groundbreaking research on the genetic and molecular basis of Alzheimer’s disease, with far-reaching implications for the development of new therapeutic interventions as well as for the understanding of other neurodegenerative diseases of the brain'

The Brain Prize 1 mio. € is a personal research prize awarded annually by The Lundbeck Foundation.


Poster presentation at the Microglia 2018 EMBO Workshop

March 18-21, 2018

Melania Capasso´s team presents a poster at the Microglia 2018 EMBO workshop in Heidelberg (Germany) under the title: Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) suppresses expression of inflammatory genes and is downregulated in microglia with age 

Talk at the Institute for Immunology in Munich 

February 28-1, 2018

Michael Meyer-Hermann presents his team´s work with a talk at the Institute for Immunology in the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich. The title of the talk is Fate decision of B cells in germinal centre reactions.


Funding period

Nov. 2017 – Oct. 2020


Funding amount

5,000,000 € from the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association

5,587,127 € co-funding by the Research Centers


Participating Helmholtz Centers

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ)
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE)
Helmholtz Center Munich (HMGU)
Helmholtz Center for Infection Research (HZI)
Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC)





Governing Body

Klaus Rajewsky (MDC)
Michela Di Virgilio (MDC)
Matthias Heikenwälder (DKFZ)
Michael Heneka (DZNE)
Ulrich Kalinke (HZI)
Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann (HMGU)




Governing Body

Michela Di Virgilio

Klaus Rajewsky



Charlotte Quirin
+49 30 9406 1648


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