Predictors of adverse outcome in adolescents and adults with isolated left ventricular noncompaction


  • M. Greutmann
  • M.L. Mah
  • C.K. Silversides
  • S. Klaassen
  • C.H. Attenhofer Jost
  • R. Jenni
  • E.N. Oechslin


  • American Journal of Cardiology


  • Am J Cardiol 109 (2): 276-281


  • Isolated left ventricular noncompaction is a rare form of primary cardiomyopathy. Although increasingly diagnosed, data on the outcomes are limited. To define the predictors of adverse outcomes, we performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively defined cohort of consecutive patients (age >14 years) diagnosed with left ventricular noncompaction at a single center. The baseline characteristics included presentation with a cardiovascular complication (i.e., decompensated heart failure, systemic embolic event, or sustained ventricular arrhythmia). The primary end point was survival free from cardiovascular death or transplantation. The predictors of survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards analysis. A total of 115 patients were included, 77% of whom were symptomatic at diagnosis. Compared to the asymptomatic patients, the symptomatic patients were significantly older and had larger left ventricular cavities and worse left ventricular ejection fraction. Of the 115 patients, 49 (43%) presented with a cardiovascular complication. During a median follow-up of 2.7 years (range 0.1 to 19.4), none of the asymptomatic patients died or underwent transplantation compared to 31% (27 of 88) of the symptomatic patients (p = 0.001). The major determinants of cardiovascular death or transplantation were presentation with a cardiovascular complication (hazard ratio 20.6, 95% confidence interval 4.9 to 87.5, p <0.0001) or New York Heart Association class III or greater (hazard ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 3.2 to 24.0, p <0.0001). Left ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction were less strong predictors. In conclusion, in patients with left ventricular noncompaction, New York Heart Association class III or greater and cardiovascular complications at presentation are strong predictors for adverse outcome.